A lot of SEOs regurgitate these terms across the Web with ‘correlation is not causation’, or ‘co-occurrence is this or that…’ and the like. When it comes to explaining their data, they simply mistake all those concepts.
Well… some questions for them:
Correlation is not causation: So, how do you determine and measure causality?
The answer is here: Using Statistics to Determine Causal Relationships
Co-occurrence and association: One is affected by size. Which one?