Chemistry Exams Miner

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This is a new miner, available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/chemexams

Find chemistry exams, practice tests, assessment studies, & more.

Great for chemistry teachers and their students.

Use it to find practice tests with(out) answers, standardized tests, and course-specific exams, or build chemistry exams curated collections. Whether you are taking analytical, organic, physical, or general chemistry, this miner is for you.

Litmus test yourself!

Patents Miner

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We have added more records to the Patents Miner at

http://www.minerazzi.com/patents

We also added rss news channels (Google, Bing, and European Patent).

One of the most interesting rss news gathered through the Bing channel is shown below:

Amazon patents highway network to stop self-driving cars crashing
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:09:00 GMT
Amazon has been awarded a patent for a technology that would enable driverless cars and trucks to navigate reversible lanes.

Patenting a highway network for autonomous vehicles: They are way ahead of business competitors.

4D Printing Miner

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4D Printing Miner is a new Minerazzi miner available now at

http://www.minerazzi.com/4d

Use it to find resources relevant to 4D Printing. As with all of our miners, you may use it to recrawl individual search results and build your own curated collections on this fascinating new disruptive technology.

Search Examples: Do a search with the miner for the following keywords: [ polymers ], [ printing materials ], and so forth.

Why a miner on 4D Printing?

Good question. Here is why: If you think that 3D printing is hot, think again because 4D Printing is here to rock the World!

4D Printing is right now revolutionizing many industries, fields, and disciplines: manufacturing, construction, medical research, biopharma, architecture, design, the arts, engineering, and computing, to mention a few.

What is 4D Printing?

4D Printing is one form of Programmable Matter (PM) technology. According to Wikipedia, the “programmable matter” term was coined in 1991 (1).

Skylar Tibbits, through his 2010 MS thesis “Logic Matter: digital logic as heuristics for physical self-guided assembly” (2), established the basis for a new technology: 4D Printing. Tibbits is a young Research Scientist, at MIT Department of Architecture and Director of the Self-Assembly Lab (3) at MIT. He is also credited of inventing the term “4D Printing”. I’m right now reading his fascinating thesis in pdf format. Simply awesome.

A light definition of 4D printing: Objects 3D-printed that evolve in time under environmental stimuli. In other words, 4D Printing is 3D printing with Time as the additional dimension.

So 4D-printed objects can evolve in time and change its molecular structures or mechanical, electrical, optical, or magnetic properties. All the changes are done without human intervention, but with environmental stimuli. Imagine building things that build themselves in the presence of a solvent (e.g, water), light, temperature changes, etc.

I guess you got the idea as to why, as this novel technology is impacting so many industries and sciences, MIT’s Self-Assembly Lab has the following partners and sponsors, among others:

http://www.bmw.com/
http://www.pg.com/
http://www.google.com/
http://www.converse.com/
http://www.suncorp.com/au
http://www.kinginnovation.com/
http://www.steelcase.com/
http://www.carbitex.com/
http://www.autodesk.com/
http://www.airbus.com/
http://www.seedmediagroup.com/

and many more.

What is Self-Assembly?

Tibbits and co-workers define this process as follows (3):

“Self-Assembly is a process by which disordered parts build an ordered structure through local interaction. We have demonstrated that this phenomenon is scale-independent and can be utilized for self-constructing and manufacturing systems at nearly every scale. We have also identified the key ingredients for self-assembly as a simple set of responsive building blocks, energy and interactions that can be designed within nearly every material and machining process available. Self-assembly promises to enable breakthroughs across every applications of biology, material science, software, robotics, manufacturing, transportation, infrastructure, construction, the arts, and even space exploration. The Self-Assembly Lab is working with academic, commercial, nonprofit, and government partners, collaborators, and sponsors to make our self-assembling future a reality. ”

Programmable Matter Defined

As stated by Campbell, Tibbits, and Garrett in the May, 2014 report of the Atlantic Council of the United States (4, 5):

“Programmable matter (PM) is the science, engineering, and design of physical matter that has the ability to change form and/or function (shape, density, moduli, conductivity, color, etc.) in an intentional, programmable fashion. PM may come in at least two forms: (1) objects made of pre-connected elements that are 4D printed or otherwise assembled as one complete structure for self-transformation, and (2) unconnected voxels that can come together or break apart autonomously to form larger programmable structures. PM encompasses, yet goes beyond, a range of technological capabilities–including 3D printing, micro-robotics, smart materials, nanotechnology, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), to name a few. ”

Useful Applications for 4D Printing

There are many. As noted by Achuth Rao (6):

“4D printing allows the manufacture of objects that transform with time, essentially allowing objects to be “programmed” to behave in certain manner. The prospects of such programmable materials are numerous:”

“On space missions astronauts can take 4D printed objects with them which can transform into desired objects/structures despite the harshness of space.”

“For plumbing & sewage structures, 4D printed pipes will have the ability to expand or contract depending on the amount of water passing through them.”

“In medicine, 4D printing could reduce surgical procedures by enabling doctors to inject self-transforming materials into the body.”

From Pixels to Voxels

A voxel is a volumetric pixel that defines the fundamental unit of digital space and programmable matter. These can be both digital (computational representation in 3D models) and physical (consisting of raw materials like integrated circuits, biomaterials, micro-robotics, titanium, nanomaterials, etc).

From Programming the Matter to Hacking the Matter: New Security Challenges

4D Printing opens the door to a new science: Programming the Matter. It also opens the door to new challenges: Hacking the Matter. That is to say that if matter can be programmed to change in time, it could also be hacked.

Hacking programmable matter presents new challenges to governments and the society in general. Imagine someone trying to hack a material that evolves in time so it becomes a different shape or adopts different characteristics in time and space. Imagine that once hacked the new shape becomes something else that could disrupt communications, services, or cause harm to humans. Three example suffices:

(a) hacking a programmable PM drug dispenser inside a human body so it dispenses more than the expected or morphs into a weapon.
(b) changing parts of a morphable transportation vehicle (car, train, airplane).
(c) modifying morphable components of clothing, engineered parts, etc.

PM technologies in the hands of terrorists or hostile governments is indeed a very bad thing as can be concluded from the Atlantic Council report (4, 5). In the right hands, as mentioned before, PM technologies and 4D Printing in particular, is set to rock the World!

PM + AI

Imagine Programmable Matter, by means of 4D Printing or other PM technologies, with an Artificial Intelligence component that under the morphological changes in time is also a self-learner, capable of making decisions…

To learn more about this incredible technology and research field, visit the Self-Assembly Lab site (3).

References

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_matter

2. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/64566

3. http://www.selfassemblylab.net/

4. http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/The_Next_Wave_4D_Printing_Programming_the_Material_World.pdf

5. http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/reports/the-next-wave-4d-printing-and-programming-the-material-world

6. https://chemical-materials.elsevier.com/new-materials-applications/the-shape-of-things-to-come-programmable-materials/

Detecting Bogus HTTP Status Codes

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We have added a new algorithm to the MUST tool, available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/must/must.php

The tool now automatically detects bogus http status code responses. These types of response codes are frequently designed, though not always, to game crawlers and automated header request tools; i.e., to believe that a resource is not accessible.

For instance, test the following with our tool and as given:

arxiv.org
ask.com
webcrawler.com
metacrawler.com

etc…

Have fun!

3 Misleading Historical Claims in Science

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Tired of misleading claims? Even in Science you can find some of these puppies. Here are three of them:

1. Handling Evidence in History: the Case of Einstein’s Wife.

Historical claims in science need to be inspected carefully, just as when testing hypotheses. This is a fascinating article by Alberto A. Martínez on claims regarding Einstein’s wife. Many still claim that she co-authored his famous papers. Read it at

https://web.archive.org/web/20110811141225/https://webspace.utexas.edu/aam829/1/m/Maric_files/EvidenceMaric.pdf

2. Madelung’s Rule and the Sloppy Version of the Aufbau Principle.

Misconceptions about the Madelung Rule can be traced back to the years after World War Two (WW2). Before WW2, Madelung and others discussed orbital occupations, not orbital energies. After WW2, his rule was somehow absorbed by chemistry textbook authors, suggesting then various graphic mnemonics. The chemists then, incorrectly, interpreted the ‘Madelung graphic’ as representing the orbital energy order in cations of a given element. As a result of this, entire generations of chemistry teachers and their students have been misled. Read more at

http://www.minerazzi.com/tutorials/rydberg-rule-mnemonic.pdf

3. The Most Influential Paper that Gerard Salton Never Wrote.

This one is a great example of sloppy peer reviewers and editors alike. Read it at

https://irthoughts.wordpress.com/2009/07/15/the-most-influential-paper-that-gerard-salton-never-wrote/

LIGO Miner New Interface

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Check the new CSS animated interface of our LIGO Miner.

http://www.minerazzi.com/ligo

To view it you need a browser that supports modern CSS rules.

CSS Animation Credits: http://codepen.io/heyvian/pen/oihDk
This animation consists of minor tweaks we added to their original work.
Please give proper credits if you want to reuse or modify it.

The classic splash interface is still accessible through the new one.

Have some LIGO 🙂

Quantum Computing Miner

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Quantum Computing is a new miner, available now at

http://www.minerazzi.com/quantum

Find resources relevant to quantum computing, searches, retrieval, and information assurance.

Access from introductory to advanced research papers and how-to articles. This 2017, move beyond classic IR and computing stuff and forward to new research paradigms like quantum information retrieval, quantum searches, quantputers, and their implications to encryption and information security.

During the last 20 years, quantum computing has mature and is now in the fast lane.

We already have quantum computers, quantum programming languages, and quantum pagerank algorithms. We even have quantum hackers and crackers.

So university computer science departments may want to start embracing quantum-oriented research projects and affine technologies. Same goes for private companies and marketing research companies.

So the challenge for this 2017 and upcoming years is…

“To bit, or not to bit, that is the qubit:”

Mining Brain Disorders with Fractal Geometry

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Fractal Geometry does it again! Happy to see fractal analysis being implemented as both a data mining and analysis tool.

A new University of Liverpool (1) study published in Neuropsychology! (2) indicates that it may be possible to detect Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative disorders in artists before they are diagnosed.

The abstract (2, 3) of What paint can tell us: A fractal analysis of neurological changes in seven artists. and authored by Forsythe, Alex; Williams, Tamsin; Reilly, Ronan G.
Neuropsychology, Vol 31(1), Jan 2017, 1-10 states and quote:

“Can age-indexed variations in the fractal dimension of the works of artists anticipate specific cognitive deteriorations?

Method: To answer this question we analysed age-related variations in the fractal dimension of a large corpus of digital images (n = 2092) of work created by seven notable artists who experienced both normal ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.

Results: The results of our analysis showed that patterns of change in the fractal dimension of the paintings differentiated artists who suffered neurological deterioration from those of normal aging controls.

Conclusions: These findings are of importance for two reasons. Our work adds to studies that demonstrate that fractal analysis has the potential to determine the provenance of paintings. Secondly, our work suggests that may be possible to identify a-typical changes in the structure of an artist’s work; changes that may be early indicators of the onset of neurological deterioration.”

End of the quote.

References

1. https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2016/12/29/can-paint-strokes-help-identify-alzheimers/
2. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/neu/31/1/1/
3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000303

Quantum Computers & Quantum Searches: The Next IS and IR Frontier

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That Quantum Computing and Searching is the next Information Security (IS) and Information Retrieval (IR) frontier is more than clear. According to Phys.org and quote

“The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is officially asking the public for help heading off a looming threat to information security: quantum computers, which could potentially break the encryption codes used to protect privacy in digital systems. NIST is requesting methods and strategies from the world’s cryptographers, with the deadline less than a year away.”

Read more at:

http://phys.org/news/2016-12-nist-future-proof-electronic.html#jCp

Now that Quantum Computers and Quantum Searches are at a corner near you, the implications are many: from search marketing to search apps, from social grids, to quantum PCs, from big challenges to big data, from quantum retrieval to mind retrieval: The sky is the limit. Back in 2013 we mentioned quantum searches in the context of XOR/XNOR searches.

http://www.minerazzi.com/help/xor-xnor.php

A miner on quantum searches will soon be available at http://www.minerazzi.com. In the meantime, see some useful links below:

References

The LIGO Miner

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This is a new miner, built with our in-context crawler, available now at

http://www.minerazzi.com/ligo

12-23-2016 Update: BREAKING NEWS: LIGO discovery named Science’s 2016 Breakthrough of the Year.

http://phys.org/news/2016-12-ligo-discovery-science-breakthrough-year.html

As its name states, our LIGO miner finds resources relevant to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project, one of the largest NSF-funded projects and that is praised by the scientific community for its discoveries, receiving a lot of attention, recognition, and prizes all over the world.

The LIGO Project allows scientists to better understand and see the Universe: i.e., to see and analyze gravitational waves due to distant objects and events, like the collision and merging of black holes. It has already proven Albert Einstein theory of gravitational waves. See these links

https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/news/ligo20160211
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/news/ligo20160615
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/detection

A course on the subject has been available online for a long time at

http://elmer.tapir.caltech.edu/ph237/

To learn more about LIGO, visit these links:

https://www.ligo.caltech.edu
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/mission
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/facts
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/facilities
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/timeline
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/blog
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/faq
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/for-media
https://www.advancedligo.mit.edu
http://www.ligo.org

This is a new way of seeing the Universe. It also opens the door for new technologies at the intersection of many disciplines like noise reduction, optics, among others; hence the importance of developing this miner.

Back in 1991, the New York Times reported that experts clashed over the project. Back then Dr. J. Anthony Tyson, an astrophysicist at A.T.&T. Bell Laboratories, and at the time chairman of the Astronomy Advisory Committee of the National Science Foundation, polled astronomers as to their views about the project: “I perused a list of about 2,000 astronomers and picked 70 who seemed to me likely to have thought about LIGO,” Dr. Tyson said in an interview. “I got 60 replies, and they ran 4 to 1 against LIGO. Most of the astrophysical community seems to feel it would be very difficult to get any important information from a gravity-wave signal, even if one should be detected.”

See the full story at this link:

http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/30/science/experts-clash-over-project-to-detect-gravity-wave.html?pagewanted=all

Those detractors were all wrong! 26 years latter, I wonder what happened with them or what they are thinking these days.

The Challenge Now:

Are you ready for LIGO and a new kind of Astronomy?

Would you like to build curated collections about LIGO?

Then try our miner.

PS

Here is a nice Mashable article on the subject

http://mashable.com/2016/02/11/einstein-gravitational-waves-detection/

discovered with the miner for the query [einstein].