Understanding the Self-Weighting Model

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About the Model

The Self-Weighting Model (SWM) consists in computing local and global weights from the constituent independent variables of a function and, from these, weighted averages for said function. See

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03610926.2011.654037

Model Advantages

SWM makes possible

1. within-set and between-set comparisons
2. calculation of weighted averages from non-additive quantities
3. acceptance or rejection of candidate weighted averages
4. identification of cases where meta-analysis models and traditional transformations fail

The above is possible by considering variability information (i.e., fluctuations) present in the constituent independent variables of a function. If this information is not available, the model suggests the harmonic mean, a statistic that frequently arises in Science and Engineering, as the candidate weighted average.

Practical Applications

With SWM, weighted averages can be easily computed from non-additive quantities like

1. correlation coefficients
2. coefficients of variations

Other applications for SWM are possible.

Tutorials

To learn more about SWM you may want to read the following tutorials:

http://www.minerazzi.com/tutorials/self-weighting-model-tutorial-part-1.pdf
http://www.minerazzi.com/tutorials/self-weighting-model-tutorial-part-2.pdf

Domain Extractor Tool

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The Domain Extractor is a new Minerazzi tool, available now at

http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/domain/extractor.php

The tool extracts domains and subdomains from up to 10,000 URLs at once. Larger sets are resized to conform to this limit. This is done to avoid browser crashes.

From the input set, the Domain Extractor returns a set consisting of domains and subdomains. The results are deduplicated and sorted in alphabetical order

The tool comes handy when one wants to extract chunks consisting of 10,000 domains from databases or other sources.

It can be conveniently used in combinations of other of our tools, like

The FQU Bot
http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/fqu/fqu.php

and

MUST
http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/must/must.php

Simple, light, but a powerful toy/tool: The Domain Extractor can be used as part of a crawling strategy: Once domains and subdomains are extracted, the chunks of URLs can be sent to a queue for crawlers to revisit them.

Another application consists in querying a search engine, extract URLs from its results page and then process them through the tool.

There might be other applications, but the above can give you an idea of how handy the tool can be.

On Mind Retrieval: Brain-Computer Interfaces

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This post is part of a series of blog posts on Mind Retrieval (MR) that we started long time ago.

Another step closer to MR is provided below:

http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002593

The abstract states and quote

“Despite partial success, communication has remained impossible for persons suffering from complete motor paralysis but intact cognitive and emotional processing, a state called complete locked-in state (CLIS). Based on a motor learning theoretical context and on the failure of neuroelectric brain–computer interface (BCI) communication attempts in CLIS, we here report BCI communication using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and an implicit attentional processing procedure. Four patients suffering from advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)—two of them in permanent CLIS and two entering the CLIS without reliable means of communication—learned to answer personal questions with known answers and open questions all requiring a “yes” or “no” thought using frontocentral oxygenation changes measured with fNIRS. Three patients completed more than 46 sessions spread over several weeks, and one patient (patient W) completed 20 sessions. Online fNIRS classification of personal questions with known answers and open questions using linear support vector machine (SVM) resulted in an above-chance-level correct response rate over 70%. Electroencephalographic oscillations and electrooculographic signals did not exceed the chance-level threshold for correct communication despite occasional differences between the physiological signals representing a “yes” or “no” response. However, electroencephalogram (EEG) changes in the theta-frequency band correlated with inferior communication performance, probably because of decreased vigilance and attention. If replicated with ALS patients in CLIS, these positive results could indicate the first step towards abolition of complete locked-in states, at least for ALS.”

End of the quote.

This article is also  quoted at the Wyss Center site:

http://www.wysscenter.ch/en/brain-computer-interface-allows-completely-locked-in-people-to-communicate/

A Spanish news derivative version can be read from

http://www.elnuevodia.com/ciencia/ciencia/nota/interfazpuedeleerpensamientodepersonassincapacidaddecomunicar-2286474/

The Wyss Center also has a neurotech challenge:

http://www.wysscenter.ch/en/neurotech-challenge/

so MR going mainstream is a matter of time.

As mentioned many times before, Mind Retrieval is a promisory information retrieval paradigm. See our previous posts on this topic below:

https://irthoughts.wordpress.com/2016/08/05/artificial-neurons-ibm-and-mind-retrieval/

https://irthoughts.wordpress.com/2016/04/28/a-step-closer-to-mind-retrieval/

https://irthoughts.wordpress.com/2015/06/17/say-hello-to-mind-retrieval/

https://ithinksearch.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/ideas-entrevista-a-edel-garcia/

 

Chemical Substances Miner

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This is a new miner available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/chemsubstances/

Find elements, compounds, ions, and alloys by names, symbols, formulas, & uses. Find information about elements of the Periodic Table. Includes NIST data.

We want to take this opportunity to mention of the following updates:

Hundreds of new records pointing to NIST chemical databases have been added to the Chemical Databases miner available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/chemdbs

Hundreds of new records pointing to Spanish exams have been added to the Chemistry Exams miner available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/chemexams

However, many. (though not all) of these spanish records are pdf files from Spain with no index keywords, so to find them just query the name of the country or a given region. I know, this is a bit odd. You may also try searching for something like química, exámen and so forth with(out) punctuation.

In addition, more records have been added to the following chemistry miners:

http://www.minerazzi.com/chem
http://www.minerazzi.com/chemsoft
http://www.minerazzi.com/chemjs

As Chemistry is a broad topic, expect additional updates to the above or new miners. Who knows? We may eventually need to place them all in a separate host.

Have a great chemistry day! 🙂

Chemistry Exams Miner

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This is a new miner, available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/chemexams

Find chemistry exams, practice tests, assessment studies, & more.

Great for chemistry teachers and their students.

Use it to find practice tests with(out) answers, standardized tests, and course-specific exams, or build chemistry exams curated collections. Whether you are taking analytical, organic, physical, or general chemistry, this miner is for you.

Litmus test yourself!

Patents Miner

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We have added more records to the Patents Miner at

http://www.minerazzi.com/patents

We also added rss news channels (Google, Bing, and European Patent).

One of the most interesting rss news gathered through the Bing channel is shown below:

Amazon patents highway network to stop self-driving cars crashing
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:09:00 GMT
Amazon has been awarded a patent for a technology that would enable driverless cars and trucks to navigate reversible lanes.

Patenting a highway network for autonomous vehicles: They are way ahead of business competitors.

4D Printing Miner

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4D Printing Miner is a new Minerazzi miner available now at

http://www.minerazzi.com/4d

Use it to find resources relevant to 4D Printing. As with all of our miners, you may use it to recrawl individual search results and build your own curated collections on this fascinating new disruptive technology.

Search Examples: Do a search with the miner for the following keywords: [ polymers ], [ printing materials ], and so forth.

Why a miner on 4D Printing?

Good question. Here is why: If you think that 3D printing is hot, think again because 4D Printing is here to rock the World!

4D Printing is right now revolutionizing many industries, fields, and disciplines: manufacturing, construction, medical research, biopharma, architecture, design, the arts, engineering, and computing, to mention a few.

What is 4D Printing?

4D Printing is one form of Programmable Matter (PM) technology. According to Wikipedia, the “programmable matter” term was coined in 1991 (1).

Skylar Tibbits, through his 2010 MS thesis “Logic Matter: digital logic as heuristics for physical self-guided assembly” (2), established the basis for a new technology: 4D Printing. Tibbits is a young Research Scientist, at MIT Department of Architecture and Director of the Self-Assembly Lab (3) at MIT. He is also credited of inventing the term “4D Printing”. I’m right now reading his fascinating thesis in pdf format. Simply awesome.

A light definition of 4D printing: Objects 3D-printed that evolve in time under environmental stimuli. In other words, 4D Printing is 3D printing with Time as the additional dimension.

So 4D-printed objects can evolve in time and change its molecular structures or mechanical, electrical, optical, or magnetic properties. All the changes are done without human intervention, but with environmental stimuli. Imagine building things that build themselves in the presence of a solvent (e.g, water), light, temperature changes, etc.

I guess you got the idea as to why, as this novel technology is impacting so many industries and sciences, MIT’s Self-Assembly Lab has the following partners and sponsors, among others:

http://www.bmw.com/
http://www.pg.com/
http://www.google.com/
http://www.converse.com/
http://www.suncorp.com/au
http://www.kinginnovation.com/
http://www.steelcase.com/
http://www.carbitex.com/
http://www.autodesk.com/
http://www.airbus.com/
http://www.seedmediagroup.com/

and many more.

What is Self-Assembly?

Tibbits and co-workers define this process as follows (3):

“Self-Assembly is a process by which disordered parts build an ordered structure through local interaction. We have demonstrated that this phenomenon is scale-independent and can be utilized for self-constructing and manufacturing systems at nearly every scale. We have also identified the key ingredients for self-assembly as a simple set of responsive building blocks, energy and interactions that can be designed within nearly every material and machining process available. Self-assembly promises to enable breakthroughs across every applications of biology, material science, software, robotics, manufacturing, transportation, infrastructure, construction, the arts, and even space exploration. The Self-Assembly Lab is working with academic, commercial, nonprofit, and government partners, collaborators, and sponsors to make our self-assembling future a reality. ”

Programmable Matter Defined

As stated by Campbell, Tibbits, and Garrett in the May, 2014 report of the Atlantic Council of the United States (4, 5):

“Programmable matter (PM) is the science, engineering, and design of physical matter that has the ability to change form and/or function (shape, density, moduli, conductivity, color, etc.) in an intentional, programmable fashion. PM may come in at least two forms: (1) objects made of pre-connected elements that are 4D printed or otherwise assembled as one complete structure for self-transformation, and (2) unconnected voxels that can come together or break apart autonomously to form larger programmable structures. PM encompasses, yet goes beyond, a range of technological capabilities–including 3D printing, micro-robotics, smart materials, nanotechnology, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), to name a few. ”

Useful Applications for 4D Printing

There are many. As noted by Achuth Rao (6):

“4D printing allows the manufacture of objects that transform with time, essentially allowing objects to be “programmed” to behave in certain manner. The prospects of such programmable materials are numerous:”

“On space missions astronauts can take 4D printed objects with them which can transform into desired objects/structures despite the harshness of space.”

“For plumbing & sewage structures, 4D printed pipes will have the ability to expand or contract depending on the amount of water passing through them.”

“In medicine, 4D printing could reduce surgical procedures by enabling doctors to inject self-transforming materials into the body.”

From Pixels to Voxels

A voxel is a volumetric pixel that defines the fundamental unit of digital space and programmable matter. These can be both digital (computational representation in 3D models) and physical (consisting of raw materials like integrated circuits, biomaterials, micro-robotics, titanium, nanomaterials, etc).

From Programming the Matter to Hacking the Matter: New Security Challenges

4D Printing opens the door to a new science: Programming the Matter. It also opens the door to new challenges: Hacking the Matter. That is to say that if matter can be programmed to change in time, it could also be hacked.

Hacking programmable matter presents new challenges to governments and the society in general. Imagine someone trying to hack a material that evolves in time so it becomes a different shape or adopts different characteristics in time and space. Imagine that once hacked the new shape becomes something else that could disrupt communications, services, or cause harm to humans. Three example suffices:

(a) hacking a programmable PM drug dispenser inside a human body so it dispenses more than the expected or morphs into a weapon.
(b) changing parts of a morphable transportation vehicle (car, train, airplane).
(c) modifying morphable components of clothing, engineered parts, etc.

PM technologies in the hands of terrorists or hostile governments is indeed a very bad thing as can be concluded from the Atlantic Council report (4, 5). In the right hands, as mentioned before, PM technologies and 4D Printing in particular, is set to rock the World!

PM + AI

Imagine Programmable Matter, by means of 4D Printing or other PM technologies, with an Artificial Intelligence component that under the morphological changes in time is also a self-learner, capable of making decisions…

To learn more about this incredible technology and research field, visit the Self-Assembly Lab site (3).

References

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_matter

2. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/64566

3. http://www.selfassemblylab.net/

4. http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/The_Next_Wave_4D_Printing_Programming_the_Material_World.pdf

5. http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/reports/the-next-wave-4d-printing-and-programming-the-material-world

6. https://chemical-materials.elsevier.com/new-materials-applications/the-shape-of-things-to-come-programmable-materials/

Detecting Bogus HTTP Status Codes

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We have added a new algorithm to the MUST tool, available at

http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/must/must.php

The tool now automatically detects bogus http status code responses. These types of response codes are frequently designed, though not always, to game crawlers and automated header request tools; i.e., to believe that a resource is not accessible.

For instance, test the following with our tool and as given:

arxiv.org
ask.com
webcrawler.com
metacrawler.com

etc…

Have fun!

3 Misleading Historical Claims in Science

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Tired of misleading claims? Even in Science you can find some of these puppies. Here are three of them:

1. Handling Evidence in History: the Case of Einstein’s Wife.

Historical claims in science need to be inspected carefully, just as when testing hypotheses. This is a fascinating article by Alberto A. Martínez on claims regarding Einstein’s wife. Many still claim that she co-authored his famous papers. Read it at

https://web.archive.org/web/20110811141225/https://webspace.utexas.edu/aam829/1/m/Maric_files/EvidenceMaric.pdf

2. Madelung’s Rule and the Sloppy Version of the Aufbau Principle.

Misconceptions about the Madelung Rule can be traced back to the years after World War Two (WW2). Before WW2, Madelung and others discussed orbital occupations, not orbital energies. After WW2, his rule was somehow absorbed by chemistry textbook authors, suggesting then various graphic mnemonics. The chemists then, incorrectly, interpreted the ‘Madelung graphic’ as representing the orbital energy order in cations of a given element. As a result of this, entire generations of chemistry teachers and their students have been misled. Read more at

http://www.minerazzi.com/tutorials/rydberg-rule-mnemonic.pdf

3. The Most Influential Paper that Gerard Salton Never Wrote.

This one is a great example of sloppy peer reviewers and editors alike. Read it at

https://irthoughts.wordpress.com/2009/07/15/the-most-influential-paper-that-gerard-salton-never-wrote/

LIGO Miner New Interface

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Check the new CSS animated interface of our LIGO Miner.

http://www.minerazzi.com/ligo

To view it you need a browser that supports modern CSS rules.

CSS Animation Credits: http://codepen.io/heyvian/pen/oihDk
This animation consists of minor tweaks we added to their original work.
Please give proper credits if you want to reuse or modify it.

The classic splash interface is still accessible through the new one.

Have some LIGO 🙂