A Novel Mnemonic for the Rydberg Rule: Updated Version


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I have uploaded a new, updated, and improved version of the tutorial:
A Novel Mnemonic for the Rydberg Rule,
Abstract – This tutorial presents a new mnemonic describing the filling order of atomic orbitals according to the Rydberg Rule. The mnemonic accounts for the reordering of atomic orbitals and the large orbital energy gaps responsible for the periodicity of elements.

A mnemonic is a memory aid device designed to improve recall. Mnemonics are popular tools in the classroom because help teachers and students to summarize large amounts of information without necessarily explaining facts. Conversely, mnemonics based on fallacies and blunders, or divorced from experimental results, can cause students more harm than good in their undergraduate studies.

At the time of writing, one cannot find in the chemical literature a straightforward mnemonic for writing electron configurations according to the Rydberg Rule. The purpose of this tutorial is to present such a novel mnemonic and, in the process, help chemistry students to properly write electron configurations.

Conceptual differences between the Madelung and Rydberg rules are identified and addressed. Myths and folklore-hilarious concepts regarding to the filling order of atomic orbitals are debunked.

A Novel Mnemonic for Rydberg Rule


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We have uploaded a new tutorial based on Rydberg Rule.

It is available at http://www.minerazzi.com/tutorials/rydberg-rule-mnemonic.pdf

We will soon upload a new version of the electron configurations tool to incorporate Rydberg Rule and more accurate experimental results.

Improving Janet’s LSPT Tool


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As of January 1 of 2016, we added the following alternative system to our Janet LSPT Tool (http://www.minerazzi.com/tools/janet/left-step-pt.php) which consists in labeling groups based on the filling of outermost orbitals


With this system, we can label groups, including those not yet discovered, in a straightforward manner. The notation used is more descriptive and convey more information than IUPAC numbering system. For instance, any reference to the “s1 group” means exactly this:

“The group of chemical elements with one electron in their outermost s orbital.”

Many teachers and chemists will find that labeling groups in this way is more consistent with their notions of electronic structure.

“What about the anomalous electron configurations?”—you may ask. Well, it turns out that this labeling system can be used to proposed a mental construct that helps us to derive the anomalous configurations in a straightforward manner. We are currently writing a tutorial article that explains this point.

Revamping MUST tool with DIRA


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We have redesigned our Minerazzi URL Scoring Tool (MUST) with a novel algorithm, initially implemented with the IANA TLD Checker another of our recent tools.

MUST checks the initial and final status response codes, urls, and ips upon redirections and whether the target resource is accessible.

The tool uses our Dynamic Indexing and Retrieval Algorithm (DIRA) which so far avoids program timeout errors, allowing the processing of a large number of URLs, while letting users monitor its progress. All this is done without resourcing to JQuery, JavaScript, or cron jobs.

These tools demonstrate that DIRA solves an important productivity-blocking problem that plagues many processes and software tools written with scripting languages like PHP: How to avoid PHP timeout errors while allowing the processing of a large number of Web resources and letting users monitor its progress.

We believe that DIRA can be a game changer in a production and database development setting.

As retrieval time is slaved to the response time of remote hosts, you may want to do other tasks while the tool is working, particularly if submitting a large number of URLs.

To avoid abuses, we have limited URLs to a maximum of 100 per submission. You may also want to run one web browser instance of the tool at a time per machine IP, to avoid unexpected results.

Enjoy these tools and Happy Holidays!


IANA TLD Checker


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IANA TLD Checker is a new tool available at


It currently uses an algorithm for dynamically caching and refreshing results.

Use it to check if a domain name has been registered across IANA’s top-level domains (tlds). Most IANA’s tlds are supported (generic, themed, countries/cities-specific, IANA’s regions-specific, and others including those available through Google and CentralNic.

The tool can be used to quickly check for possible branded domains or if someone is infringing on your intellectual property by registering domain names with your brand(s). So it can be used to supplement whois searches.

The tool can also be used to discover IPs not intended for public view. See instructions in the TLD Intelligence section of the tool’s page.

UPDATE: We added a new set of options at the bottom of the selection menu that allows you to search alphabetically. This set of options retrieves tlds from IANA’s site on a daily basis, allowing you to retrieve domains with tlds not found through the other options. At the time of writing, you can access a combined set of 1,167 tlds.

Status Response Codes Tool


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This is a new tool, available at


The tool allows you to search for status response codes even if these are not part of IANA’s Status Code Registry.

To use the tool, just submit a keyword or valid status code from 100 to 599.

Unlike similar tools which only match status codes, ours also match keywords. The tool is also cases-insensitive so you can use lower or upper cases.

A brief explanation of falsey values and a status code of 0 is included.

Enjoy it.

MTU, MSS, and IP Packet Fragmentation Legacy Tutorials are Back!


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Two new legacy tutorials aimed at those data mining information security and written way back, in 2009, are now available at

MTU and MSS Tutorial

This tutorial covers maximum transmission unit (MTU), maximum segment size (MSS), PING, NETSTAT, and fragmentation.

IP Packet Fragmentation Tutorial

This tutorial covers IP fragmentation, data payloads, IP packet and header lengths, maximum transmission unit (MTU), and fragmentation offset (FO).

Enjoy them!

On Updates and Socrates Trial


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Socrates Trial, http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/socrates/ifstoneinterview.html, is a page we accidentally found while rebuilding and updating over the weekend all miner indexes. Fascinating reading.

BTW. We are building a new miner on classic scientific papers. We are also planning in building miners focused only on high-profiled and prolific scientists.

The goal is to build curated collections about specific individuals. Imagine one miner on all the writings of Dijkstra, another on Salton’s, Knuth’s, and so forth–one on Socrates, anyone?

Updates to Chemistry Tools


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Electron Configurations Tool

Now you can retrieve electron configurations with the tool at
by submitting an element chemical symbol, name, or atomic number.

Janet Left Step Periodic Table Tool

Now you can use the tool at
to retrieve atomic numbers and symbols, inclusive of unknown elements (up to Z = 220); i.e., we found a way to transliterate atomic numbers to symbols.

The upper bound of 220 was adopted just to avoid screen display distortions.

Janet Left-Step Periodic Table Program


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Janet LSPT Program is now available. The program mathematically models all atomic numbers, periods, and groups from the periodic table using Tsimmerman’s framework.

The program was designed to build new tools on top of it, like periodic tables, interactive tools, etc.

For instance, we can use its output to map atomic numbers to chemical symbols and then reproduce Janet tables.

If you are into searching for atomic number series and triads, this program can help you. We can also use the program to develop all sort of interactive tools that accept atomic numbers or atomic sequences as their input.

It is also a great chemistry teaching tool.

To test the program or learn more about the theory behind it, visit http://minerazzi.com/tools/janet/left-step-pt.php