Temperature Converter Tool


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This tool is another application of our unit converter design pattern described before. It uses a simple function that recursively switches between temperature conversions. No need to hard code over and over specific scales. It can be modified to include all sort of temperature scales.

Convert units like Celsius, Kelvin, Fahrenheit, Rankine, and others with this tool, available now at


6-17-2016 Update: The tool now works with a total of 71 temperature scales (yep, the very old and rare ones included).


Mass Converter Tool


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This is a new data conversion tool, available now at


No need to mess over and over with annoying pull-down menus.

Just input a value and press Enter key. The tool then easily converts all kind of mass units at once, allowing you to save time and efforts.

Supports SI, Avoirdupois, Troy, Apothecaries units, and more.

The tool uses the same design pattern algorithm that powers our Length Converter tool at







Length Converter Tool


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Length conversions made easy. This is a tool that converts length units like SI, US Customary, British, and more. Just input a value and press the Enter key.

The Length Converter is available at


What is computed:

  • When appropriate, conversions follow NIST guidelines (NIST, 2016; 2006).
  • You may need to format results according to your needs.
  • You may also want to follow NIST 2006 guidelines for expressing results to a given number of significant digits:
    • If the first significant digit of the converted value is greater than or equal to the first significant digit of the original value, round the converted value to the same number of significant digits as there are in the original value.
    • If the first significant digit of the converted value is smaller than the first significant digit of the original value, round to one more significant digit.
  • The most used units from the SI System are listed.

Extended Boolean Model Tutorial


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Our 2006 legacy tutorial on the Extended Boolean Model is back, with its content edited and updated. It is available now at


For additional tutorials across disciplines, visit


Enjoy it!



Web Spam Miner


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This is a new Minerazzi.com miner, available at


This miner allows users to find web spam and anti-spam resources, including research papers and conferences on adversarial IR strategies. Users can search by topic, author, doi, or event.

Introduction to Global Weights with Applications to MySQL


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This is Part 5 of a tutorial series on Term Vector Theory. Several global weight models are discussed and a brief introduction to MySQL implementation of the Vector Space Model presented.

The tutorial is available at


Forward-confirmed reverse DNS (FCrDNS) Tool


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This tool is available at


The tool allows you to do Forward and Reverse DNS lookups. Given a host name, the tool finds its IP. Conversely, given an IP the tool finds the corresponding host.

Forward DNS lookup resolves a host name to an IP address (A record). The process of reverse resolving an IP address uses the pointer DNS record type (PTR record).

Thus, the tool does Forward-confirmed reverse DNS (FCrDNS) lookups. This is a networking parameter configuration where a given IP address has both forward (name-to-address) and reverse (address-to-name) Domain Name System (DNS) entries that match each other.

Unlike similar tools which do Forward/Reverse DNS lookups on a single host, our tool does lookups on multiple hosts, saving users time and effort.

To use the tool, enter one host name (or IP) per line, ending each line by pressing the Enter key.

Forward DNS lookups are faster than Reverse DNS lookups so for the latter you may want to do a few checks at once.

Depending on DNS server configurations, lookups with or without the www alias can produce dissimilar results. For instance yahoo.com with and without www returns different results.


Our tool can be used to identify Internet service providers (ISPs) who do not provide properly matching DNS and rDNS records. It can also be used to find shared hosting and, when misconfigured, forwarders information leaks.

FCrDNS verification can also be used for whitelisting purposes because spammers and phishers cannot usually by-pass this verification when they use zombie computers for email spoofing. That is, the reverse DNS might verify, but it will usually be part of another domain than the claimed domain name.

Z-to-P and P-to-Z Transformations


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We have developed a new tool that simplifies Z-to-P and P-to-Z Transformations. It is available at


Unlike similar tools that handle one input score at a time, our tool computes Z-to-P and P-to-Z transformations over an entire set of input scores, saving users time and effort.

The tool facilitates the work of data miners, statisticians, or anyone that need to compute Z and P scores without having to consult Z statistical tables.

It is a great tool for students and teachers interested in Statistics.

What Drives Organic Traffic to Retail Sites?


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If you really want to understand the effectiveness of SEO from a scientific standpoint, read Search Engine Optimization: What Drives Organic Traffic to Retail Sites? from Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2016, 6–31

I know. The piece is a bit old by Internet standards, but the more one reads it the more one learn. Baye, De Los Santos, & Wildenbeest have done a great research publishing their findings. The study was sponsored by Google, a few years ago.

Actually, the piece was written in 2013, presented at a conference in 2014, and its finding republished in 2016.

It is still very relevant to search marketers and prospective clients.

My favorite piece from their findings is this:

“While previous literature has focused on the role of sponsored links in consumer searches, Michael R. Baye, Babur De los Santos, and Matthijs R. Wildenbeest are the first to explain the drivers of organic (natural) clicks to improve search engine optimization (SEO). In this interview, the authors discuss why investing heavily in brand equity, instead of exclusively on search rankings, is crucial for a retailer’s SEO strategy. ”

and this:

“We also point out that investments that improve site quality and consumer awareness (and more broadly, that enhance an online retailer’s brand equity) are likely to have spillover benefits in  other channels that are not accounted for in this or other studies of organic and sponsored search. These benefits include increases in clicks through other online channels (such as price comparison sites), increases in the number of direct visits to a retailer’s website, increases in visits through navigational searches at search engines, and increases in traffic at the retailer’s physical stores. These considerations–coupled with the fact that position is a zero-sum game and thus a retailer is unlikely to obtain a sustainable advantage through direct efforts to improve its ranking–lead us to conclude that brand equity is one of the more important components of retailers’ SEO strategies.”

pH Scale Calculator


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A new chemistry tool is available now at


This one allows you to generate a customized scale of pH, pOH, and concentration values.

Supporting material includes a sortable table of pH of common supplies and biological materials.

Enjoy it.