A lot of SEOs regurgitate these terms across the Web with ‘correlation is not causation’, or ‘co-occurrence is this or that…’ and the like. When it comes to explaining their data, they simply mistake all those concepts.

Well… some questions for them:

Correlation is not causation: So, how do you determine and measure causality?

The answer is here: Using Statistics to Determine Causal Relationships

Co-occurrence and association: One is affected by size. Which one?

The answer is here: Similarity Coefficients: Measures of Co-Occurrence and Association or Simply Measures of Occurrence?