Tired of misleading claims? Even in Science you can find some of these puppies. Here are three of them:
1. Handling Evidence in History: the Case of Einstein’s Wife.
Historical claims in science need to be inspected carefully, just as when testing hypotheses. This is a fascinating article by Alberto A. Martínez on claims regarding Einstein’s wife. Many still claim that she co-authored his famous papers. Read it at
2. Madelung’s Rule and the Sloppy Version of the Aufbau Principle.
Misconceptions about the Madelung Rule can be traced back to the years after World War Two (WW2). Before WW2, Madelung and others discussed orbital occupations, not orbital energies. After WW2, his rule was somehow absorbed by chemistry textbook authors, suggesting then various graphic mnemonics. The chemists then, incorrectly, interpreted the ‘Madelung graphic’ as representing the orbital energy order in cations of a given element. As a result of this, entire generations of chemistry teachers and their students have been misled. Read more at
3. The Most Influential Paper that Gerard Salton Never Wrote.
This one is a great example of sloppy peer reviewers and editors alike. Read it at