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CSS Fractal Studio

Back in 2017, Stepanyan & Petoukhov reported that long nucleotide sequences can be modeled as binary fractals by means of Kronecker exponentiation of matrices.


see also https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1310/1310.8469.pdf

Abstract reads in part:

“This method uses a set of symmetries of biochemical attributes of nucleotides. It also uses the possibility of presentation of every whole set of N-mers as one of the members of a Kronecker family of genetic matrices. With this method, a long nucleotide sequence can be visually represented as an individual fractal-like mosaic or another regular mosaic of binary type.”

We added the fractal resembling the pattern of the nucleotide sequence Homo sapiens chromosome 22 genomic scaffold into our Fractal Studio tool at


Researchers can reproduce its binary mosaic, shown above, by just selecting the Homo Sapiens Mosaic option from the tool selection menu. Compare results with Figures 4 and 8 of Stepanyan & Petoukhov article. Compare also some multifractals that the tool generates with some of the genetic mosaics described in the article.

Multidisciplinary research is a beautiful thing.